From the Annals of the Llano Estacado – In 1874, the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon put an end to most of ongoing conflict between the last of free-ranging Plains Indians and the U.S. Army. The battle occurred on September 28, 1874 when several U.S. Army regiments under Ranald S. Mackenzie attacked a large encampment of Plains Indians in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. 1 Background; 2 The battle; 3 Results; 4 References Background. The stone-age Folsom and Clovis peoples began inhabiting Palo Duro Canyon approximately 12,000 years ago, mainly subsisting on large roving herds of prehistoric giant bison and woolly mammoths. Palo Duro Canyon began forming over a million years ago, building up stunningly-colorful layers of geologic strata that tell a geological tale that is over 200 million years old. The soldiers kill four Indians, sustaining one casualty and several wounded of their own. He had travelled to the area and was dismayed to see markers that describe this tragic event as a “victory.” They burn the camp and all of the Indians’ winter supplies. The battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a major battle of the Red River War, a miltiary campaign to forcibly move Southern Plains Indians to reservations in the Indian Territory. Ever since the summer of 1874 the Comanche, Cheyenne and Kiowa had sought refuge in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas panhandle. Thanks to Erik Barnhill for suggesting this post. Palo Duro Canyon State Park: Best camping night of our trip - See 2,156 traveller reviews, 1,890 candid photos, and great deals for Canyon, TX, at Tripadvisor. Also, the adjacent plains would have been preserved as would have the North and South Cita Canyons in their entirety. Palo Duro Canyon National Monument would have levied federal ownership on 175,000 acres of the larger canyon system from the Palisades in far upper Palo Duro Canyon, southeastward through Happy Canyon. After the battle, most of the remaining southern Plains Indians (Comanches, Kiowas, Kiowa Apaches, Cheyennes and Arapahos) settled in reservations in Indian Territory. Contents. In the decisive battle of the Red River War, thirteen companies of U.S. troops led by Col. Ranald Mackenzie attack a camp of Kiowas, Comanches, and Cheyennes at Palo Duro Canyon. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a significant United States victory that brought about the end of the Red River War. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a military confrontation and a significant United States victory during the Red River War. A battle between Kiowas, Comanches, Cheyennes, and 400 troopers of Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie's Fourth U.S. Cavalry took place early on the morning of Monday, September 28, 1874, deep in this great canyon of the Red River, 1,000 feet below the level plains of the Texas Panhandle. PALO DURO CANYON, BATTLE OF.